Idiopathic scoliosis can be defined as abnormal or excessive curvature of the spine with no known cause. Most scoliosis cases do not have any known causes and this type of scoliosis is by far the most common category. The incidence rate among patients 10 to 18 years old makes up about 80% of all scoliosis cases.
The iliac bones are the two large bones that make up the part of the pelvic girdle considered as the upper crest or "wings.” The sacrum of the spinal cord can be found in the middle of the two iliac bones. The sacrum and iliac bones together make up the sacroiliac joint. Pain can result in this area due to trauma, fractures, and any other kinds of injury.
Inflammation is a broad term that refers to the immune response that happens when the body intercepts unwanted pathogens. In injuries related to the spinal cord, pain is often accompanied by inflammation. Inflammation can generally be treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Informed consent is usually a verbal and/or written explanation to patients about an intended procedure, treatment, or clinical trial and the potential health risks of participating in it. Informed consent was put in place by law to protect the rights of patients. One important right of the patient is the right to choose whether to participate in a procedure, treatment, or clinical trial. Health care providers are required to disclose every detail before the onset of these events.
Institutional Board Review
An institutional board review (IRB) is the entire panel of professionals who hold meetings to review and approve steps in clinical trials. They include scientists, doctors, clergy, and people at the consumers end. These professionals investigate the design of a clinical trial to make sure it conforms to legal and ethical requirements.
Internal Disc Disruption
Internal Disc Disruption (IDD) refers to the destruction of structures within the vertebral disc. A diagnosis of IDD is very difficult since the exterior of the disc would appear to be intact. The only way to confirm IDD currently is the controversial provocation discography procedure. The low back pain caused by IDD cannot be traced to nerve root compression. Failure to diagnose and treat IDD can lead to chronic pain and/or physical disability.
Internal fixation is a procedure that uses implants to stabilize a long bone during the wait for complete healing. During spinal fusion surgery, internal fixation devices (usually a plate and screws) are used to hold the spine in place to allow for complete spinal fusion to take place over a period of time.
The intervertebral disc is a structure with a thick outer layer and a soft inner core that acts as a cushion in between two vertebral bodies. The thick outer layer is called the annulus fibrosis and is made up of circular layers of collagen fibers. The inner layer is called the nucleus pulposus and is made up mainly of water and loose connective tissue.
Intradural-extramedullary tumor, as the name implies, refers to tumors that are found inside the Dura mater of the spine but outside the nerves. Although these tumors are mostly benign they can still cause some amount of pain.
Investigational Device Exemption
Investigational device exemption (IDE) is an exclusion that allows an investigational device that is not yet FDA-approved to be used in a clinical trial for collecting data on safety and effectiveness. To obtain an IDE, devices must meet certain requirements, including approval of an investigational plan by an investigational review board (IRB), informed consent, labeling referring to being an investigational device, informed consent, and other required documentation.
Spondylolisthesis is a deformity that involves a vertebra moving forward out of normal position and pressing onto the bone located below. It is most common as a side-effect of an underlying condition called spondylolysis (an abnormality in a portion of the bone that connects facet joints in the spine). There are several types of spondylolisthesis. Isthmic spondylolisthesis usually occurs between 5 and 7 years of age, however symptoms may not show up until later in adulthood after arthritis or fractures.