The sacroiliac joint is the meeting place of the sacrum and the iliac bone. The iliac bones are the two large bones that make up the pelvis. The sacrum sits right in the middle of the two iliac bones. The sacroiliac joint is very strong as it bears a lot of weight. A great characteristic of the sacroiliac joint is its shock-absorbing nature.
Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
Sacroiliac joint dysfunction, also called sacroiliac joint pain, is a cause of low back and/or leg pain. The sacroiliac joint itself does not move much; therefore sacroiliac joint pain can come from excessive mobility (hypermobility or instability) or too little mobility (hypomobility or fixation) of the joint. Diagnosis is difficult since there are many causes of low back pain and leg pain. Diagnosis of sacroiliac joint dysfunction is best done through a physical examination.
Sacroiliac Joint Hypermobility
The sacroiliac joint is located between the sacrum and the iliac joints. It does not have much mobility. However, the sacroiliac joint and the ligaments that hold it can become too loose. The term used to describe this is “sacroiliac joint hypermobility.” Sacroiliac joint hypermobility can result in a sharp or intense pain that spirals downwards from the lower back or buttocks to the legs.
Sacroiliac Joint Hypomobility
The sacroiliac joint is located between the sacrum and the iliac joints. It does not have much mobility. However, the sacroiliac joint and the ligaments that hold it can become too stiff leading to reduced movement. The term used to describe this is “sacroiliac joint hypomobility.” Sacroiliac joint hypomobility can result in a sharp or intense pain that spirals downwards from the lower back or buttocks to the legs.
The sacrum is the fused bone shaped like a triangle between the fifth lumbar vertebrae and the coccyx (tailbone). The fused sacrum consists of five segments – S1-S5. The sacrum borders the back wall of the pelvis and articulates with joints at the hip bone called the sacroiliac joint.
Scheuermann's Disease is also called Scheuermann's kyphosis, postural kyphosis, hunchback or roundback. Scheuermann's Disease is specifically found in teenagers. It occurs when the front spine does not develop as fast as the back causing some of the vertebrae bones line up in a row and become wedge-shaped. The cause of scheuermann's Disease is not known. Diagnosis may be confirmed by physical examination. Treatment includes a brace and physical therapy. Braces are not effective in adults. Surgery may be required in extreme cases of kyphosis greater than sixty degrees.
The sciatic nerve originates from the lower spine, divides into two pathways, and then goes down both legs. It supplies sensation to the muscles of the back of the thigh, back of the knee, the lower leg, and the soles of the feet. The sciatic nerve is the major nerve that travels down the feet. When the nerve roots of the sciatic nerve are compressed higher up in the spine, it causes a sharp pain that shoots through the legs, commonly called sciatica.
When the nerve roots of the sciatic nerve are compressed higher up in the spine, it causes a sharp pain that shoots through the legs, commonly called sciatica. The sciatic nerve is the major nerve that travels down the feet and supplies sensation to the muscles of the back of the thigh, back of the knee, the lower leg, and the soles of the feet. Common causes of sciatica include herniated disc, degenerative disc disease, and lumbar spinal stenosis.
Scoliosis is an abnormality in which the spine is curved in a sideways direction. Causes may include congenital, developmental, or degenerative health problems. Sometimes the cause is not known and it is described as idiopathic scoliosis. When it occurs in children aged 3-9 it is called juvenile scoliosis. Scoliosis typically starts in the thoracic or thoracolumbar region of the spine. Treatment includes two types of braces – thoracolumbar sacral orthosis brace or Charleston bending brace.
The scoliotic curve is an S-like or C-like shape of the spinal cord when viewed from the back which identifies with the abnormality of scoliosis. The normal shape of the spine should be “S-shape” from a sideways view.
Sequestrated disc is a condition in which a portion of a vertebral disc detaches and moves into the spinal canal. The disc fragment that has detached may exert pressure on the spinal nerves, causing symptoms of pain, tingling, and numbness in the affected area. The condition occurs when the inner material of a vertebral disc (the nucleus pulposus) extrudes through the annular fibers into the spinal canal. Symptoms of a sequestrated disc may be alleviated with conservative treatments or spinal laser surgery.
Shiatsu massage is a Japanese massage technique that involves applying finger and palm pressure to specific points on the body in order to relieve muscle tension and pain. Shiatsu, which means “finger pressure,” aims to reduce stress by manipulating pressure points along specific meridians of the body. The physiotherapy technique also helps to improve blood circulation.
Shingles is a viral infection that causes painful blisters. It is caused by the varicella-zoster virus—a virus which also causes chickenpox. After a person has had chickenpox, the virus lies dormant in nerve tissue near the spinal cord. The virus may reactivate as shingles in the future. Vaccines may reduce the risk of shingles and early treatment can help shorten a shingles infection.
Short Leg Syndrome
Short leg syndrome means asymmetry in length of the lower limbs. Symptoms of short leg syndrome include knee and leg pain, poor balance, and sciatica (inflammation of the nerves in the leg and lower back). Short leg syndrome may be classified as structural or functional. Structural short legs are caused by trauma or congenital growth inequality. Functional short legs are usually caused by soft tissue contractures or foot function aberrations.
See Herniated Disc
SNRIs (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) are antidepressant medications that work by blocking the absorption (reuptake) of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. SNRIs are also used in the treatment of anxiety and nerve pain.
Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP)
Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) consists of a series of waves that reflect sequential activation of neural structures along the somatosensory pathways. An SSEP test studies the relay of stimuli to your brain and how the brain receives those sensations. The test involves applying electrical stimuli at specific points on the body and measuring the impulses generated by the stimuli using electrodes placed on the head and/or spine.
Spina bifida is a type of congenital defect called a neural tube defect. It occurs when the neural tube fails to develop or close properly, causing defects in the spine and spinal cord. Children with spina bifida often have spine and brain issues such as paralysis, bladder or bowel problems, fluid build-up in the brain (hydrocephalus), and a curve in their spine (scoliosis). Children with the most severe form of spina bifida usually need surgery.
Spinal canal is the hollow passage formed by successive openings in the vertebrae that contains the spinal cord and its membranes. The spinal canal originates at the base of the skull and ends at the sacrum. The spinal canal contains cerebrospinal fluid that bathes the nerves.
Spinal Canal Stenosis
Spinal canal stenosis is a condition in which the spinal canal is compressed, causing pain in the neck and back. Spinal canal stenosis can be caused by a number of conditions, many occurring as a result of the natural aging process. Conditions that may lead to spinal canal stenosis include herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, arthritis, and osteoporosis. Spinal canal stenosis can be treated with conservative procedures or surgery.
Spinal cord refers to the cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers and associated tissue that vertically extends from the brain, along the back in the vertebral canal. The cord of nervous tissue gives off the pairs of spinal nerves, carries impulses to and from the brain, and serves as a center for initiating and coordinating many reflex acts.
Spinal Cord Stimulation
Spinal cord stimulation uses low voltage stimulation of the spinal nerves to treat chronic pain. It involves surgically implanting an electrotherapeutic device onto the spinal cord. This device consists of electrodes connected to a battery-powered generator. Spinal cord stimulation is usually used to treat chronic back pain and nerve pain.
Spinal fusion is surgery to permanently connect two or more bones in the spine, eliminating movement between them. Spinal fusion involves placing bone or a bone-like material between two vertebrae. Metal plates, screws, and rods may be used to hold the vertebrae firmly in place in order for them to fuse together. Spinal fusion may restrict normal movement and place additional stress and strain on the spine.
Spinal manipulation is a physiotherapy technique that involves the application of pressure to the spine and joints to reduce pain and stimulate healing. Spinal manipulation is designed to relieve stress on the joints, reduce inflammation, and improve nerve function.
Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of bones that make up the lumbar spinal column. This narrowing puts pressure on the nerve roots and causes pain commonly known as sciatica. Age is a big contributing factor toward spinal stenosis as it occurs mostly in people older than 50. However, younger people can have spinal stenosis from a spinal injury. Spinal stenosis can be diagnosed with a physical exam and imaging tests such as x-ray, MRI, and CT scans. Symptoms include pain and numbness in any areas where the pressured nerves extend to.
Spinal tap is a procedure to collect and analyze the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. A spinal tap involves inserting a needle into the spinal canal in the lower back area. This procedure can be used to check for infections, inject anesthetics or medicines into the cerebrospinal fluid, and diagnose certain diseases of the brain and spinal cord. A possible side effect of spinal taps is meningitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord membrane).
Spinal tumor is a growth that develops within the spinal canal or within the bones of the vertebrae. Spinal tumors may be cancerous or noncancerous. Tumors could begin within the spinal cord and vertebrae. Tumors from other parts of the body can also metastasize (spread) to the vertebrae to cause spinal tumors. Spinal tumors may cause pain, neurological problems, and paralysis. Spinal tumors may be removed or reduced through surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and other treatments.
The spine, also known as the spinal or vertebral column, is a series of vertebrae extending from the skull to the tailbone. It encloses the spinal cord and provides support for the thorax and abdomen.
Spinous process is the dorsal projection from the center of a vertebral arch. The spinous process provides a point of attachment for muscles and ligaments. Spinous process fractures may occur when there is direct trauma to the vertebrae or excessive pulling on the muscles that attach to the spinal process.
Spondylolisthesis is a deformity that involves a vertebra moving forward out of normal position and pressing onto the bone located below. It is most common as a side-effect of an underlying condition called spondylolysis (an abnormality in a portion of the bone that connects facet joints in the spine). In children, spondylolisthesis commonly occurs between the lumbar vertebra and sacrum caused by a congenital abnormality in that area (dysplastic spondylolisthesis). In adults, spondylolisthesis can occur as a consequence of degenerative arthrosis (degenerative spondylolisthesis), arthritis or fractures (isthmic spondylolisthesis), or bone disease (pathologic spondylolisthesis).
Spondylolysis is an abnormality in a portion of the bone that connects facet joints in the spine. It occurs when a stress fracture weakens the bone of the vertebra, shifting the vertebra out of place. Spondylolysis usually affects the fifth lumbar vertebra in the lower back. The pars interarticularis—a portion of the lumbar spine that joins together the upper and lower joints—fractures and distorts the position of vertebra. X-rays and MRI scans may be used to detect this condition.
Spondylosis refers to the age-related wear and tear affecting the spinal disks and facet joints. Cervical spondylosis is a common form of spondylosis that occurs as the spinal disks in the neck dehydrate and degenerate. Cervical spondylosis causes symptoms of arthritis to develop and bony spurs (bony projections along the edges of bones) to form. Spondylosis can be treated with anti-inflammatory medications and physiotherapy.
Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that bridges the gap between science and practice in the promotion of exercise and health. Sports medicine deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. With a focus on helping individuals improve their athletic performance and injury recovery/prevention, specialists help many "regular" people as well as athletes.
Stabilization training is a form of physical activity designed to strengthen the muscles and spine. It helps trainees to find and maintain their neutral spine position. Stabilization training utilizes a range of physical therapy techniques such as strengthening exercises, stretching exercises, and aerobic conditioning to rehabilitate the muscles and spine.
Stress management is a compounded approach that employs different methods to treat stress-related back pain. Stress often worsens back problems and may even directly cause some physical symptoms of back pain. Some recommendations for patients to decrease anxiety and stress include learning more and being clear about the causative factors of back pain and also following the doctor’s guidance and recommendations about treatment options.
Subluxation (also known as vertebral subluxation) is a chiropractic term to denote an out-of-place spinal vertebra which is impairing nerve function. In subluxation, the contact between the joints remains but there is some loss of alignment, movement, and/or function. Subluxation is classified into 4 by the Houston Conference Classification – static intersegmental, kinetic intersegmental, sectional, and paravertebral subluxation.
Swedish massage is a type of massage therapy that uses long strokes, continuous kneading, friction movements, and tapping strokes to improve the blood circulation in the body. The muscles are massaged along the same direction as blood flowing toward the heart. The four main strokes of Swedish massage are effleurage, petrissage, friction, and tapotement.
Synovial cysts (also called myxoid cysts) are growths that form around either fingers or toes which originate from joints or tendons. The cysts look like rounded, flesh-colored protrusions and may contain fluid. Synovial cysts are usually benign and may or may not be painful. Synovial cysts may be connected to osteoarthritis. Treatments include pain relievers, injections, and spine surgery (decompression with or without spine fusion).
- Sacroiliac Joint
- Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
- Sacroiliac Joint Hypermobility
- Sacroiliac Joint Hypomobility
- Scar Tissue
- Scheuermann’s Disease
- Sciatic Nerve
- Scoliotic Curve
- Sequestrated Disc
- Shiatsu Massage
- Short Leg Syndrome
- Slipped Disc
- SNRI Medications
- Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP)
- Spina Bifida
- Spinal Canal
- Spinal Canal Stenosis
- Spinal Cord
- Spinal Cord Stimulation
- Spinal Fusion
- Spinal Manipulation
- Spinal Stenosis
- Spinal Tap
- Spinal Tumor
- Spinous Process
- Sports Medicine
- Stabilization Training
- Stress Management
- Swedish Massage
- Synovial Cysts