Tai-chi is a Chinese exercise that focuses on using steady, slow, and fluid movements, rhythmic breathing, and deep meditation to treat pain. Studies show that Tai-chi can benefit individuals both physically and mentally. Tai-chi is now an increasingly common alternative or supplemental method for healing back or neck pain.
TED hoses, or thrombo-embolic deterrent hose, are stockings worn on the leg which put static pressure that prevents blood clots from forming. After some spinal surgeries patients may be immobile for a relative amount of time. TED hoses are usually prescribed for such patients to prevent the formation of blood clots.
A tendon is the tissue that joins the muscles to the bones. Pain due to inflammation can result from the tendon when there is injury or extended overuse. Tendon repair is a type of surgery that caters to injured, damaged, or torn tendons. Before surgery, pain can be reduced by using local anesthesia, regional anesthesia, and general anesthesia.
The thoracic spine is made up of twelve vertebral bodies (T1-T12) which form the mid-region of the spine. The thoracic spine is firmly attached to the rib cage at each level of the thoracic spine limiting motion. Due to this stability, thoracic disc injuries are rare. Unlike the cervical spine that is flexible and the lumbar spine that is able to bear great loads, the thoracic spine functions mainly in stabilization.
Thoracic vertebrae are the 12 vertebral bodies fromT1-T12 which together make up the thoracic spine. T1-T12 vertebrae have very limited motion and hence are less prone to injury. Due to their stability, they are also not the usual culprits for back pain.
Titanium is a strong metal usually used as a component in surgical implants. Some characteristics that make Titanium a worthy candidate to be inserted into the body are its biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to bear heavy loads. Although titanium is a metal, it rarely causes issues with metal detectors. Titanium can be used to reinforce or replace the anterior column by using something called a titanium mesh cage as the implant.
Traction is a physical manipulation procedure used to stretch and realign the spine. This method can provide pain relief by removing direct pressure from the nerves and intervertebral discs. Since the cervical region is more flexible than the lower back, traction is more effective for cervical pain. Traction can be performed either manually or by the use of spinal traction equipment.
A tranquilizer is a medication that completely relaxes the central nervous system. Tranquilizers are classified as sedative-hypnotics. There are minor tranquilizers (anxiolytics, or anti-anxiety agents) and major tranquilizers (neuroleptics). Valium (Diazepam) is one of the most common tranquilizers given to patients for low back pain related to short-term muscle spasms. Tranquilizers can be addictive and must be used with caution. Combining alcohol with tranquilizers is highly dangerous because both depress the central nervous system individually and when combined have a synergistic effect which can be ultimately fatal.
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS, Electrotherapy)
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, electrotherapy) is a type of non-invasive self-administered technique to reduce pain. Measured or pulsed electrical current is delivered through electrodes at the site of the pain (on the intact skin) to produce non-painful sensations. Although the evidence is not yet proven, it is believed that TENS reduces pain by blocking nociceptive signals and/or causing the body to release endorphins which are natural painkillers. Two main reasons TENS is a popular technique are its inexpensiveness and safety.
Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is the surgical fusion of the lumbar disc space from the posterior side of the facet joint. The disc is removed and a bone graft is used to replace it which stimulates the adjacent vertebrae to be fused together. This technique causes two vertebrae to become one bone and hence prevents any further movement between these vertebrae. This leads to stability and hence reduces pain and nerve irritation.
Transverse process is a small bony extension that protrudes from the right and left side of each vertebra. The two transverse processes from each vertebra serve as the site of attachment for muscles and ligaments of the spine. They also serve as the point of articulation of the ribs (in the thoracic region). During a posterolateral spinal fusion surgery, bone grafts are placed between the transverse processes of the affected vertebrae.
A trigger point is an area on the muscle or connective tissue that is sensitive to pressure and can cause “referred pain.” Trigger points are also considered to be spots where pain can radiate from muscles causing myofascial pain. Muscle spasms can be relieved by performing a trigger point myotherapy, which involves applying specific amount of pressure to trigger point zones.
Trigger Point Injections
Trigger point injections are injections containing local anesthetics which are delivered to trigger point areas on muscles to relieve pain. They are sometimes combined with corticosteroids. Trigger point injections are generally given as an outpatient procedure.
Trigger Point Myotherapy
Trigger point myotherapy is therapy that involves applying specific amounts of pressure to trigger point areas on the muscle to obtain pain relief from muscle spasms. Pressure is applied in ten to thirty second intervals.